Category Archives: History

Media Literacy: Future Challenges

This section of the blog has focused on the history of media literacy education in the United States. I thought it would be fitting to wrap up with a look towards the future.  As history has shown us, media education … Continue reading

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New Year, Same Results?

In previous posts we have covered the three phases of media education in the United States: the inoculation phase, the facing-it phase, and the transitional phase. We have also discussed one of the earliest large scale study of media effects … Continue reading

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The Payne Fund Studies

Now that we have examined the three phases of media education in the United States, I thought it would be interesting to investigate some specific studies of media effects throughout history.  We will look to see if an increased focus … Continue reading

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The Transitional Phase

While educators began to ask important ideological questions about the media during the facing-it phase, the transitional phase marks a distinctive shift towards a media literacy movement. The transitional phase began in the late 1980s and remains in effect today.  … Continue reading

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The Facing-It Phase

As the inoculation strategy proved ineffective, educators chose a new method and media education entered a new stage in the late 1970s: the facing-it phase. In this phase, educators began to use popular mass media to entice students to study … Continue reading

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The Inoculation Phase

Media education in the United States can be divided into three distinct stages: the inoculation phase, the facing-it phase, and the traditional phase.  The inoculation phase came first and it began in the late 1960s. It was during the inoculation … Continue reading

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